Our shipping season has ended and we are not able to accept any more orders for this season. Please check back September 2023 to see our online catalog for the next shipping season which will begin January 2024.

Thank you to all our loyal bareroot fans. We sincerely appreciate each and every one of you, and look forward to serving you again in September 2023.

Rootstock Descriptions

Betulaefolia (Betula)

Standard rootstock for Asian and flowering pears. More vigorous than Calleryana; unpruned tree height of fruiting varieties 15-25 feet, but tree may be held to any height with summer pruning. Tolerates wet soil, dry soil, alkaline soil. Resistant to pear decline. More cold hardy than Calleryana, to at least -10° F.

Citation (Cit.)

Peaches and nectarines dwarfed to eight to fourteen feet, apricots and plums dwarfed to twelve to eighteen feet. Very tolerant of wet soil, but not drought tolerant (induces early dormancy in dry soil) so needs very regular water in hot climates. A top dressing of mulch can help maintain soil moisture. Resists root-knot nematodes. Induces heavy bearing at a young age. Very winter hardy. Strong and well anchored. Pat. No. 5112 (Zaiger)

Domestic Apple (Apple)

Most rugged rootstock for apples. Vigorous, deep-rooted, tolerates wet soil, dry soil, poor soil. Cold hardy. Trees slower to bear than semi-dwarfs. Apparently resistant to oak root fungus. Unpruned tree height of standard varieties 18-30 feet, but tree may be kept to any height desired with summer pruning. Seed from Golden Delicious.

Domestic Pear Seedling (Pear)

Standard rootstock for European and hybrid pears. Seed usually from Bartlett. Long-lived, vigorous trees reach 15-25 feet, but can control size with summer pruning. Relatively tolerant of wet soils and drought. Disease resistant, resistant to oak root fungus. Durable, productive.

Geneva 935 (Gen.)

New dwarfing apple rootstock that keeps trees at eight to ten feet.  Very cold hardy and very fireblight resistant.  A precocious bearer of large fruit, it resists crown rot and root rot and suckers very little.

Lovell (Lov.)

Vigorous, standard rootstock for plums, peaches, nectarines, apricots, prunes, almonds. More tolerant of wet soils than Nemaguard, also more cold hardy. Susceptible to nematodes in sandy soils. Provides good anchorage and high degree of disease resistance. Unpruned tree height of standard varieties 15-25 feet. Size can be controlled further with summer pruning.

M 111

Excellent all-around rootstock for apples. Induces bearing at a younger age than standards. Tolerates wet soil, dry soil, poor soil, soil with high temperatures. Resists woolly apple aphids, collar rot and fireblight. Apparently resistant to oak root fungus. Trees dwarfed to 80-90% of standard, or about 15-25 feet, but can be further controlled with summer pruning. Very cold hardy, does not promote early bud break, Used in Ontario, Canada. Rarely suckers.

M7 (EMLA-7)

Dwarfing rootstock for apples.  Unpruned tree height is two thirds the size of standard or about twelve to twenty feet.  Induces early and heavy bearing.  Resistant to fireblight and powdery mildew, moderately resistant to collar rot.  Has good anchorage.  Very winter hardy, widely adapted.

Mahaleb (Mah.)

The most winter hardy of the commonly used cherry rootstocks. Resists crown gall, bacterial canker, some nematodes. Not tolerant of wet soils. Standard varieties slightly dwarfed to about 85% of their height on Mazzard, or about 25-35 feet. Can be held at any height with summer pruning. Induces early, heavy bearing. 

Marianna 26-24 (Mari.)

Standard rootstock for apricots, plums, prunes, most almonds. Mature trees comparatively small, 15-20 feet if unpruned, but can be kept smaller with summer pruning. Shallow root system, much more tolerant of wet soils than Lovell or Nemaguard; is not tolerant of hot soils. Has tendency to sucker. Resistant to oak root fungus, root knot nematodes, root rot.

Maxma 14 (Max.)

Cherries are dwarfed to 2/3 of standard, about fifteen feet. Very precocious and productive. Extensive root system with good anchorage.  Tolerant of wet soils.  Resistant to nematodes, bacterial canker and iron choloris. Very little suckering.

Mazzard (Mazz.)

Standard rootstock for sweet cherries; unpruned tree height of standard varieties is 30-40 feet. Trees may be held to any height with summer pruning. Vigorous, more tolerant of wet soils than Mahaleb, but good drainage still required. Resistant to root knot nematodes and oak root fungus. Well anchored. Relatively cold hardy.

Myrobalan 29C (Myro.)

Excellent, all-around rootstock for apricots, plums, almonds. Shallow but vigorous root system tolerates wet soils and is widely adapted; is more deeply rooted than Marianna. Resistant to root knot nematodes and has some resistance to oak root fungus. Unpruned tree height of standard varieties 15-25 feet, but can control size further with summer pruning. Winter hardy in Michigan.

Nemaguard (Nema.)

Standard rootstock for nectarines, peaches, apricots, plums, prunes, almonds. Vigorous, resists root knot nematode. Excellent for well drained soils. In heavy or poorly drained soil, plant on mound or hill. May not be winter hardy below 5°F. Unpruned tree height of standard varieties 15-25 feet. Size can be controlled further with summer pruning.

Northern Calif. Black (NCB)

Black walnut seedling. Vigorous; resistant to verticillium wilt, oak root fungus and root knot nematodes.

Old Home X Farmingdale 333 (OHxF 333)

For European and Asian pears. Trees dwarfed to two thirds the size of standard, or about twelve to eighteen feet. Easily kept smaller with summer pruning. Productive and precocious. Highly resistant to fireblight and pear decline and moderately tolerant of crown gall. Well anchored and does not sucker. Highly resistant to winter injury. Widely adapted.

Paradox (Para.)

Vigorous hybrid rootstock for walnuts.  English walnut varieties on Paradox are fast growing and productive at a young age. More tolerant of wet soil than NCB, less resistant to oak root fungus.


Standard rootstock for almonds and peaches.  Highly adaptable and deep rooted, tolerant of wet and clay soils.  Vigorous, precocious, productive.  Resistant to nematodes.  Suckers very little, if at all. (Zaiger)

Z-Dwarf (ZD)

New cherry rootstock from Zaiger Genetics.  Very dwarf; unpruned trees grow to about twelve feet.  Perfect for container growing and adaptable to many soil types.